Trinidad and Tobago

General Presentation:

Formal Education:

  • Ph.D. Literatures in English, University of the West Indies (2007). Doctoral thesis on “Earl Lovelace and the Evolution of Voice in the History of the Novel in Trinidad and Tobago.”
  • B.A. (1965) and M.Phil. (1967), University of London

Employment/Work Experience:

  • Retired Senior Lecturer - Department of Liberal Arts, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Taught West Indian and African Diaspora Literature; Creative Writing (Prose Fiction).
  • Formerly Coordinator of the English Language Foundations Programme at UWI, St. Augustine.
  • Teacher / lecturer at secondary and tertiary levels in four Caribbean countries during the period 1970s to the present.
  • Ongoing: facilitator and co-facilitator of creative writing workshops.

Public Service:

  • Resource person in education / awareness programmes of many NGOs.
  • Membership on a number of public service bodies, among them:

-                The Advisory Council to The Academy at the University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT) for Arts, Letters, Culture and Public Affairs.

-                The Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO

-                Women Working for Social Progress (Workingwomen).


  • Fiction: two novels Crick Crack, Monkey (1970) and For the Life of Laetitia (1993); and some short stories.
  • Textbook: The Knots in English: A Manual for Caribbean Users (1997)
  • Articles in local and international journals, on Caribbean literature, language, family, gender and other cultural issues.

Main works



A. Academic


  • The Knots in English: A Manual for Caribbean Users. Wellesley: Calaloux, 1997.


  • Is Freedom We Making (with joint author Chris Searle). St. George’s: Fedon Publications, 1982. [Documents system of governance in process of development during Grenada Revolution 1979-1983]

Articles published in refereed journals

  • “The Language of Earl Lovelace.” Anthurium: A Caribbean Studies Journal. 4.2 (2006)

  • “Dialogue and Narrative Voice in The Schoolmaster.”  Journal of West Indian Literature 8.1 (1998). 56-72.

  • “Novels on the French Caribbean Intellectual in France”. In Interamerican Review. [Puerto Rico] 6.2 (1976): 211-31.
  • “Social Conscience or Exoticism?  Two Novels from Guadeloupe” (on Guadeloupean novelists Michele Lacrosil and Simone Schwarz-Bart).  Interamerican Review. [Puerto Rico] 4.3 (1974): 391-401.

Articles published in other journals

  • “Caribbean Family Values and Beka Lamb”. The Caribbean Writer. [St. Croix] 11 (1997): 192-203.
  • “Towards a discussion on: The Emergence of a Caribbean Aesthetic”. Caribe. [New York] (1980): 25-31.
  • “Young Women and the Development of Stable Family Life in the Caribbean. Savacou. [Kingston] Gemini (1977): 39-44.
  • “The Folktales of Bernard Dadié”. Black Images. [Toronto] 3.3 (1974): 57-63.

  • “Higher Learning in the Third World:  The University and Folk Culture”. In publication of UWI Extra-Mural Department (Open Lecture Series), Port of Spain, 1972.


  • Review of:  John Stewart, Last Cool Days. Tapia. [Port of Spain] 21 (1972): 9.
  • Review of:  C.L.R. James, Minty Alley. Tapia. [Port of Spain] 25 (1972): 11-12.

Contributions to books

  • “The Language of Earl Lovelace”.  A Place in the World. Ed. Funso Aiyejina. Caroni: Lexicon, 2008. 97-101
  • “The Writer in the Caribbean Language Situation”. Writing Life: Reflections by West Indian Writers. Eds. Mervyn Morris and Carolyn Allen. Mona: Ian Randle Publishers, 2007. 144-54
  • “We Kind of Family”. Gendered Realities: Essays in Caribbean Feminist Thought. Ed. Patricia Mohammed, Mona : UWI Press, 2002. 474-85
  • “Caribbean Writers and Caribbean Language:  A Study of Jamaica Kincaid’s Annie John”. Winds of Change: The Transforming Voices of Caribbean Women Writers. Eds. Adele S. Newson and Linda Strong-Leek, New York: Lang, 1998. 47-53.
  • “Challenges of the Struggle for Sovereignty: Changing the World versus Writing Stories”. Caribbean Women Writers: Essays from the First International Conference. Ed. Selwyn Cudjoe. Wellesley: Calaloux, 1990. 202-8
  • “Beyond Negritude: the Love Poems”. Critical Perspectives on Léon-Gontran Damas. Ed. Keith Q. Warner. Washington: Three Continents Press, 1988. 119-45
  • “People”. Trinidad and Tobago. Ed. Elizabeth Saft. Series: Insight Guides. Singapore: APA Productions, 1987. 69-82.
  • “Towards People’s Participation in Caribbean Development”. A Caribbean Reader on Development. Eds. Beckford, G. et al. Kingston: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1986. 91-118.
  • Preface to: Erna Brodber, Perceptions of Caribbean Women. Cave Hill: Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER), University of the West Indies, 1983. iv-xiii.
  • “The People of Trinidad and Tobago”. David Frost Introduces Trinidad and Tobago. Eds. Michael Anthony and Andrew Carr. London: Deutsch, 1975. 31-40.
  • “In the Shadow of the Whip:  Male-Female Relations in the Caribbean”. Is Massa Day Dead? Ed. Orde Coombs. New York: Doubleday, 1974. 111-9.

B. Creative Writing


  • For the Life of Laetitia (novel). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1993.

-          British edition - London: Orion, 1995.

-          French translation - Paris: Castor Poche Flammarion, 1993.

-          Italian translation - Milan: Mondadori, 1993.

-          German translation - Munich: C. Bertelsman Jugendbuch Verlag 1999.

  • Crick Crack, Monkey (novel). London: Deutsch, 1970

-                    Republished - London: Heinemann, 1981

-                    French translation – Paris: Editions Karthala, 1982

-                    Dutch translation – Brussels:Ambo/Novib, 1993

-                    Extracts printed in many anthologies, including:

Her True-True Name: An Anthology of Women’s Writing from the Caribbean. Eds.  Pamela Mordecai and Betty Wilson, London: Heinemann, 1989.


Short Stories

  • “Limbo Island.” Blue Latitudes: Caribbean Women Writers at Home and Abroad. Eds. Elizabeth Nunez and Jennifer Sparrow. Emeryville: Seal Press, 2006
  • “Gran-Gran” (short story for young people). Venture. Oslo: Cappelen, 1996

-          also in Tapestry. Oslo: Cappelen, 1996.

-          Dutch translation: Den Eerste Keer. Novib, The Hague: 1995.

  • “Jeffie Lemington and Me” (story for children). Over Our Way. Eds.

V. Pollard and J. D’Costa, London: Longman, 1980.

-          Reprinted: Round Two. Ed. Roy Blatchford, London: Bell and Hyman, 1985.

  • “Inez”. Pepperpot. [Kingston] December (1975).

Reprinted: Callaloo 12.4 (1989).


-          Reprinted: The Faber Book of Contemporary Caribbean Short Stories. Ed. Mervyn Morris, London: Faber & Faber, 1990.

  • “Millicent” (story for children). Shell Book of Trinidad Stories.

Ed. Therese Mills, Port of Spain: The College Press, 1973.

-          Reprinted: Over Our Way. Eds. V. Pollard and J. D’Costa, London: Longman, 1980.

-          African American Literature. Eds. Athena Blackorby and Cindy Joyce, New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1991.


· Level 2 of The Knots in English: A Manual for Caribbean Users. (Level 1 published in 1997).

  • Edited version, for publication, of doctoral thesis (2007) “Earl Lovelace and the evolution of voice in the history of the novel in Trinidad and Tobago”.
  • Third novel.

@La Médiathèque Caraïbe

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